Re: violence...

J. R. Molloy (
Sun, 10 Oct 1999 02:15:59 -0700

Phil Osborn wrote,
>Or, what about the fact that there are today MORE rapes of men by men
>committed inside prisons than all the rapes throughout society of women?
>The victims are usually young first offenders, mariuana users, etc. And the
>consequences are likely to be much worse, including often a death sentence
>due to AIDS. Yet I would bet that less than $1 is spent dealing with this
>attrocity for every $10,000 spent dealing with the rape of women. It only
>adds irony to injustice to note that a large number of the rapes of women is
>actually committed by the very former inmates who were themselves raped in

Sir, you have astonished and delighted me with the cogent and incisive clear thinking in this paragraph. Thank you for that (and sorry about gushing). I had nearly abandoned hope that extropians might see the need for dealing with issues of violence as they relate to gender.

Did you know, for instance, that females commit more domestic violence than do males?

Here are some citations with accompanying narratives. I'll send along more as I compile them.

  1. John Archer and Natasha Ray, "Dating Violence in the United Kingdom: a Preliminary Study," _Aggressive Behavior_, Vol. 15, 1989, pp. 337-43. Dating couples (college students) report that 48% of male partners and 65% of female partners committed at least one violent act in their current relationship (using Conflict Tactics Scale).
  2. Ileana Arias and Patti Johnson, "Evaluations of Physical Aggression Among Intimate Dyads," _Journal of Interpersonal Violence_, Vol. 4, September 1989, pp. 289-307. Ten percent of female college students and 15% of male students were physically aggressive in a current relationship; 19% of female students and 18% of male students were physically aggressive in a past relationship (using Conflict Tacktics Scale).
  3. Ileana Arias, Mary Samos, and K. Daniel O'Leary, "Prevalence and Correlates of Phyusical Aggression During Courship," _Journal of Interpersonal Violence_, Vol.2, March 1987, pp. 82-90. Ten percent of female and 10% of male students used severe physical aggression against current dating partner; 19% of female and 10% of male students used severe physical aggression against current dating partner; 19% of female and 10% of male students used severe physical aggression against past dating partners (using Conflict Tactics Scale).
  4. M. L. Bernard and J. Bernard, "Violent Intimacy: The Family as a Model for Love Relationships," _Family Relations_, Vol. 32, 1983, pp. 283-86. Four hundred sixty-one college students revealed that more females than males were abusive in dating relationships (21% vs. 15%).
  5. R. E. Billingham and A. R. Sack, "Courtship Violence and the Interactive Status of the Relationship," _Journal of Adolecent Research_, Vol. 1, 1986, pp. 315-25. A survey of 526 university students revealed similar rates of violence between men and women, but women were three times more likely (9% vs. 3%) to have initiated violence when their parner did not.
  6. Roger Bland and Helene Orn, "Family Violence and Psychiatric Disorder," _Canadian Journal of Psychiatry_, Vol. 31, March 1986, pp. 129-37. Random sample of 1,200 Canadians found that 14.6% of men and 22.6% of women hit or threw things at their spouse or partner.
  7. Judy Rollins Bhannon, David A. Dosser Jr., and S. Eugene Lindley, "Using Couple Data to Determine Domestic Violence Rates: An Attempt to Replicate Previous Work," _Violence and Victims_, Vol. 10, 1995, pp. 133-41. Eleven percent of wives and 7% of husbands in military couples were physically aggressive, as reported by the wives.
  8. Jamaica Bookwala, Irene H. Frieze, Christine Smith, and Katheryn Ryan, "Predictors of Dating Violence: A Multivariate Analysis," _Violence and Victims_, Vol. 7, 1992, pp. 297-311. Twnenty-two percent of women and 17% of men admitted being violent while their partner was not violent, in their current relationship.
  9. Merlin B. Brinkerhoff and Eugene Lupri, "Interspousal Violence," _Canadian Journal of Sociology_, Vol. 13, 1988, pp. 407-34. A random sample of 562 couples in Calgary, Alberta, revealed severe violence rates of 10.7% wife-to-husband, and 4.8% husband-to-wife. Overall violence rates were 13.2% wife-to-husband and 10.3% husband-to-wife.
  10. Lisa Brush, "Violent Acts and Injurious Outcomes in Married Couples: Methodological Issues in the "_National Survey of Families and Household," Gender and Society_, Vol. 4, March 1990, pp. 56-67. A feminist found both sexes agree that 2.8% of women were victims of men; 3.8% of men were victims of women. The survey contained over 13,000 respondents.
  11. Judith Brutz and Bron B. Ingoldsby, "Conflict Resolution in Quaker Families," _Journal of Marriage and the Family_, Vol. 46, 1984, pp. 21-26. Quaker females acknowledged inflicting severe violence three times as frequently as Quaker males did (2.5% vs. 0.8%).
  12. P. J. Burke, Jan E. Stets, and Maureen A. Prog-Good, "Gender Identity, Self-Esteem, and Physical and Sexual abuse in Dating Relationships," _Social Psychology Quarterly_, Vol. 51, 1988, pp. 272-85. A sample of 505 college students reported that in a one-year period, 14% of the men and 18% of the women inflicted physical abuse on their partners, while 10% of the men and 14% of the women received physical abuse from their partners.
  13. Michelle Carrado, Malcolm George, Elizabeth Loxam, L. Jones, and Dale Templar, "Aggression in British heterosexual Relationships: A Descriptive Analysis," _Aggressive Behavior_, Vol. 22, 1996, pp. 401-15. Eleven percent of men and 5% of women were victimized in their current relationships. A representative sample of 1,978 men and women in Great Britain was surveyed.
  14. Michele Cascardi, Jenifer Langinrichen, and Dina Vivian, "Marital Aggression: Impact, Injury and Heath Correlates for Husbands and Wives," _Archives of Internal Medicine_, Vol. 152, June 1992, pp. 1178-84. According to the _wives_, 33% of husbands and 36% of wives were severely aggressive toward their spouse.
  15. Marie B. Caulfield and David S. Riggs, "The Assessment of Dating Aggression: Empirical Evaluation of the Conflict Tactics Scale," _Jouranl of Interpersonal Violence_, Vol. 7, December 1992, pp. 549-58. In a sample of 667 college students, more women than men beat up their partner (2.3% vs. 1.9%), threw something at their partner (14.6% vs. 6.9%) and kicked, bit, or hit their partner with a fist (13.0% vs. 3.1%).
  16. James E. Deal and Karen Smith Wampler, "Dating Violence: the Primacy of Previous Experience," _Journal of Social and Personal Relationships_, Vol. 3, 1986, pp 457-71. Of 410 students at two southern universities, 6% of females and 4% of males were aggressors; 15% of males and 5% of females were victims in a current or most recent relationship.
  17. Alfred DeMaris, "The Efficacy of a Spouse Abuse Model in Accounting for Courtship Violence," _Journal of Family Issues_, Vol. 8, September 1987, pp 291-305. Of 484 students from four southeastern universities, 31.1% of females and 23.5% of males inflicted violence on their partneres in the previous year (using the Conflict Tactics Scale).
  18. Diane R. Foolingstad, Shannon Wright, Shirley Lloyd, and Jeri A. Sebastian, "Sex Differences in Motivations and Effects in Dating Violence," _Family Relations_, Vol. 40, 1991, pp. 51-57. In a sample of 495 college students, 20% of females and 12% of males admitted using physical force in a relationship.
  19. June Henton, Rodney Cate, James Koval, Sally Lloyd, and Scott Christopher, "Romance and Violence in Dating Relationships," _Journal of Family Issues_, Vol. 4, September 1983, pp. 467-82. Female high school students were more likely than male students to be the sole abuser of the other sex (5.7% vs. 1.4%). Sample size: 644.

Grok it and rocket,

--J. R.