Re: Balloon-Borne Instrument Collects Antimatter

Robert J. Bradbury (
Sat, 21 Aug 1999 16:18:59 -0700 (PDT)

On Sat, 21 Aug 1999, J. R. Molloy wrote:

> Physics (as an example of a complex adaptive system which generally adapts
> more perennially than the organisms that birthed it) might easily outrun
> cosmic entropy, if it can attain a Type I civilization (Michio Kaku's
> coinage) as its base before theistic politicos cause a holocaustal mass
> extinction.

Is there any difference between Kaku's Type I civilization and Kardashev's Type I civilization? Kardashev came up with these terms in December of 1963. I'm pretty sure that Kaku was probably still a baby at that time.