Re: m1, m2, m3 civilizations

Anders Sandberg (
11 Dec 1998 13:26:27 +0100

Damien Broderick <> writes:

> >galaxy. I think I got this from Hyperspace by Michio Kaku
> In Kaku's VISIONS, he cites and uses the analysis by Nikolair Kardashev and
> Freeman Dyson (first popularised by Sagan, I believe, in THE COSMIC
> CONNECTION [1975]).
> Type I civilisation masters all the energy available on a single planet.
> (So we're still Type 0.)
> Type II masters a star - using a Dyson sphere, for example.
> Type III exploits groups of stars, perhaps a whole galaxy.
> Kaku conjectures Type IV, which plays tricks with wormholes and can escape
> the death of this universe by tunneling to another.

I would say a type IV would master the universe (makes a nice progression). So Tiplerian engineering comes into this category.

There was an interesting dicussion on a while back about this categorization, and someone suggested that you could have a logarithmic index for the ability of a given civilization to utilize energy; this might be a more exact ranking.

Anders Sandberg                                      Towards Ascension!                  
GCS/M/S/O d++ -p+ c++++ !l u+ e++ m++ s+/+ n--- h+/* f+ g+ w++ t+ r+ !y