Re: Gay Extropians!!! (long list of refs warning)

From: Alex Future Bokov (
Date: Sat Oct 07 2000 - 14:13:49 MDT

Okay, here's the loooooong message I warned you about.

Record 1 of 16
                           Green R; Keverne EB
                           The disparate maternal aunt-uncle ratio in
                           male transsexuals: an explanation invoking
                           genomic imprinting
                           JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL
                           BIOLOGY 2000, Vol 202, Iss 1, pp 55-63
                           A significant skewing in the sex ratio in
                           favour of females has been reported for the
                           families of homosexual men such that there
                           are fewer maternal uncles than aunts. This
                           finding is repeated for a large series of
                           transsexual families in this study. Four
                           hundred and seventeen male-to-female
                           transsexuals and 96 female-to-male
                           transsexuals were assessed. Male-to-female
                           transsexuals have a significant excess of
                           maternal aunts vs, uncles. No differences
                           from the expected parity were found for
                           female-to-male transsexuals or on the
                           paternal side. A posited explanation for
                           these findings invokes X inactivation and
                           genes on the X chromosome that escape
                           inactivation but may be imprinted. Our
                           hypothesis incorporates the known familial
                           traits in the families of homosexuals and
                           transsexuals by way of retention of the
                           grand parental epigenotype on the X
                           chromosome. Generation one would be
                           characterized by a failure to erase the
                           paternal imprints on the paternal X
                           chromosome. Daughters of this second
                           generation would produce sons that are
                           XpY and XmY. Since XpY expresses Xist,
                           the X chromosome is silenced and half of
                           the sons are lost at the earliest stages of
                           pregnancy because of the normal
                           requirement for paternal X expression in
                           extra-embryonic tissues. Females survive
                           by virtue of inheriting two X chromosomes,
                           and therefore the possibility of X
                           chromosome counting and choice during
                           embryonic development. In generation
                           three, sons inheriting the paternal X after its
                           second passage through the female germline
                           survive, but half would inherit the
                           feminizing Xp imprinted genes. These
                           genes could pre-dispose the sons to
                           feminization and subsequent development
                           of either homosexuality or transsexualism
                           (C) 2000 Academic Press.
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                           JAN 7
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                           J THEOR BIOL

  Record 2 of 16
                           Bailey JM; Pillard RC; Dawood K; Miller
                           MB; Farrer LA; Trivedi S; Murphy RL
                           A family history study of male sexual
                           orientation using three independent samples
                           BEHAVIOR GENETICS 1999, Vol 29, Iss
                           2, pp 79-86
                           Available evidence suggests that male
                           homosexuality is both familial and
                           somewhat heritable and that some cases
                           may be caused by an X-linked gene.
                           However, most studies have recruited
                           subjects in a relatively unsystematic
                           manner, typically via advertisements, and
                           hence suffer from the potential
                           methodological flaw of ascertainment bias
                           due to volunteer self-selection. In the
                           present study we assessed the familiality of
                           male homosexuality using two carefully
                           ascertained samples and attempted to
                           replicate findings consistent with X-linkage
                           in three samples. The percentage of siblings
                           of the probands rated as either homosexual
                           or bisexual, with a high degree of certainty,
                           ranged from 7 to 10% for brothers and 3 to
                           4% for sisters. These estimates are higher
                           than recent comparable population-based
                           estimates of homosexuality, supporting the
                           importance of familial factors for male
                           homosexuality. Estimates of lambda(s) for
                           male homosexuality ranged from 3.0 to 4.0.
                           None of the samples showed a significantly
                           greater proportion of maternal than paternal
                           homosexual uncles or homosexual male
                           maternal first cousins. Although our results
                           differed significantly with those of some
                           prior studies, they do not exclude the
                           possibility of moderate X-linkage for male
                           sexual orientation.
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                           BEHAV GENET

  Record 3 of 16
                           Rice G; Anderson C; Risch N; Ebers G
                           Male homosexuality: Absence of linkage to
                           microsatellite markers at Xq28
                           SCIENCE 1999, Vol 284, Iss 5414, pp
                           Several lines of evidence have implicated
                           genetic factors in homosexuality. The most
                           compelling observation has been the report
                           of genetic linkage of male homosexuality to
                           microsatellite markers on the X
                           chromosome. This observation warranted
                           further study and confirmation. Sharing of
                           alleles at position Xq28 was studied in 52
                           gay male sibling pairs from Canadian
                           families. Four markers at Xq28 were
                           analyzed (DXS1113, BGN, Factor 8, and
                           DXS1108). Allele and haplotype sharing
                           for these markers was not increased over
                           expectation. These results do not support an
                           X-linked gene underlying male
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                           APR 23
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  Record 4 of 16
                           Jones MB; Blanchard R
                           Birth order and male homosexuality:
                           Extension of Slater's index
                           HUMAN BIOLOGY 1998, Vol 70, Iss 4,
                           pp 775-787
                           Homosexual men tend to be later-born
                           children. Slater's index, the ratio of older
                           sibs to all sibs, is consistently higher for
                           male homosexuals than for comparable
                           heterosexuals. According to some
                           explanations of this tendency, homosexual
                           men are later born with respect to their
                           brothers and later born with respect to their
                           sisters only secondarily and less strongly.
                           We show that if sisters have no direct
                           bearing on a brother's sexual orientation
                           and brothers do, then older sisters/all sisters
                           approximate to older brothers + 1/all
                           brothers + 2. On the other hand, if sisters
                           have the same bearing on a brother's sexual
                           orientation as male sibs do, then older
                           sisters/all sisters approximate to older
                           brothers/all brothers These ratios are
                           calculated and compared in nine samples of
                           homosexual men and nine corresponding
                           samples of control heterosexuals. The first
                           equation holds for homosexual men, and
                           the second equation holds for heterosexual
                           men. The late birth order of homosexual
                           men is sex specific. What matters is a boy's
                           birth order relative to his brothers only.
                           This effect may have its origins in an
                           immune reaction or in behavioral contagion.
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                           HUM BIOL

  Record 5 of 16
                           Pillard RC; Bailey JM
                           Human sexual orientation has a heritable
                           HUMAN BIOLOGY 1998, Vol 70, Iss 2,
                           pp 347-365
                           We present an overview of behavioral
                           genetics research on homosexual and
                           heterosexual orientation. Family, twin, and
                           adoptee studies indicate that homosexuality
                           and thus heterosexuality run in families.
                           Sibling, twin, and adoptee concordance
                           rates are compatible with the hypothesis that
                           genes account for at least half of the
                           variance in sexual orientation, We note
                           observations of homosexual behavior in
                           animal species, but the analogy to human
                           sexual orientation is unclear. We discuss the
                           reproductive disadvantage of a homosexual
                           orientation and present possible
                           mechanisms that could maintain a balanced
                           polymorphism in human populations.
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                           HUM BIOL

  Record 6 of 16
                           Goodman RE
                           Understanding human sexuality -
                           Specifically homosexuality and the
                           paraphilias - In terms of chaos theory and
                           fetal development
                           MEDICAL HYPOTHESES 1997, Vol 48,
                           Iss 3, pp 237-243
                           This paper considers human sexual
                           orientation, specifically homosexuality and
                           some paraphilias, to occur as a result of
                           intrauterine development, itself a
                           mathematically chaotic process. Parameter
                           space, an example of state space in the
                           phase diagram, has been used to illustrate
                           different phenotypes. The crossing of a
                           bifurcation boundary by the developing
                           fetus is proposed as a mechanism by which
                           it may be changed from one sexual
                           orientation to another, e.g. from
                           heterosexuality to homosexuality. The
                           factors which push the fetus over a
                           bifurcation boundary, which include a
                           Y-chromosome, specific hormone
                           administration, the lying contiguous to an
                           opposite-sex fetus in multiple pregnancies,
                           maternal stress and immune factors are
                           described. The syndromes congenital renal
                           hyperplasia and the androgen insensitivity
                           syndrome and their relevance to this model
                           are also discussed. Finally, chaos theory is
                           used to encompass the complex interactions
                           between fetal development and cultural
                           factors in human sexuality.
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                           MED HYPOTHESES

  Record 7 of 16
                           Blanchard R; Klassen P
                           H-Y antigen and homosexuality in men
                           JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL
                           BIOLOGY 1997, Vol 185, Iss 3, pp
                           In men, sexual orientation correlates with
                           the number of older brothers, each
                           additional older brother increasing the odds
                           of homosexuality by approximately 33%. It
                           is hypothesized that this fraternal birth order
                           effect reflects the progressive immunization
                           of some mothers to Y-linked minor
                           histocompatibility antigens (H-Y antigen)
                           by each succeeding male fetus, and the
                           concomitantly increasing effects of H-Y
                           antibodies on the sexual differentiation of
                           the brain in each succeeding male fetus.
                           This hypothesis is consistent with a variety
                           of evidence, including the apparent
                           irrelevance of older sisters to the sexual
                           orientation of later-born males, the probable
                           involvement of H-Y antigen in the
                           development of sex-typical traits, and the
                           detrimental effects of immunization of
                           female mice to H-Y antigen on the
                           reproductive performance of subsequent
                           male offspring. (C) 1997 Academic Press
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                           APR 7
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                           J THEOR BIOL

  Record 8 of 16
                           Yamamoto D; Ito H; Fujitani K
                           Genetic dissection of sexual orientation:
                           Behavioral, cellular, and molecular
                           approaches in Drosophila melanogaster
                           NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH 1996, Vol
                           26, Iss 2, pp 95-107
                           Insertional mutagenesis using P-element
                           vectors yielded several independent
                           mutations that cause male homosexuality in
                           Drosophila melanogaster. Subsequent
                           analyses revealed that all of these insertions
                           were located at the same chromosomal
                           division, 91B, where one of the inversion
                           breakpoints responsible for the bisexual
                           phenotype of the fruitless (fru) mutant has
                           been mapped. In addition to the altered
                           sexual orientation, the fru mutants displayed
                           a range of defects in the formation of a
                           male-specific muscle, the muscle of
                           Lawrence. Since the male-specific
                           formation of this muscle was dependent
                           solely on the sex of the innervating nerve
                           and not on the sex of the muscle itself, the
                           primary site of action of the fru gene should
                           be in the neural cells. satori, one of the
                           P-insertion alleles of fru which we isolated,
                           carried the lacZ gene of E. coli as a reporter,
                           and beta-galactosidase expression was
                           found in a subset of brain cells including
                           those in the antennal lobe in the satori
                           mutant. Targeted expression of a sex
                           determination gene, transformer (tra), was
                           used to produce chromosomally male flies
                           with certain feminized glomeruli in the
                           antennal lobe. Such sexually mosaic flies
                           courted not only females but also males
                           when the DM2, DA3 and DA4 glomeruli
                           were feminized, indicating that these
                           substructures in the antennal lobe may be
                           involved in the determination of the sexual
                           orientation of flies. Molecular cloning and
                           analyses of the genomic and complementary
                           DNAs indicated that transcription of the fru
                           locus yields several different transcripts,
                           one of which encodes a putative
                           transcription regulator with a BTB domain
                           and two zinc finger motifs. In the 5'
                           non-coding region, three putative
                           Transformer binding sites were identified. It
                           appears plausible therefore that the fru gene
                           is one of the elements in the sex
                           determination cascade that controls sexual
                           fates of certain neuronal cells. Improper sex
                           determination in these neural cells may lead
                           to altered sexual orientation and
                           malformation of the male-specific muscle.
                           Some implications of the results of our
                           study on sexual orientation in other
                           organisms will be discussed based on the
                           Drosophila research.
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                           NEUROSCI RES

  Record 9 of 16
                           Roper WG
                           The etiology of male homosexuality
                           MEDICAL HYPOTHESES 1996, Vol 46,
                           Iss 2, pp 85-88
                           This hypothesis ag rees with Le Vay's
                           suggestion that the two phenomena of
                           childhood behavior and adult sexuality are
                           induced by separate events rather than being
                           two events in a single chain (1). However,
                           it differs from Le Vay in that it includes the
                           postnatal period, as being of crucial
                           importance in the development of adult
                           sexuality. Male homosexuality is portrayed
                           as a biological variation of human sexuality
                           and the hormonal changes which may
                           produce it are described. It is postulated that
                           sexual preference is dictated by testosterone
                           action on the brain possibly commencing
                           prenatally but certainly continuing during a
                           critical postnatal period. It is proposed that
                           reduction in testosterone action results in
                           reduced proliferation of hypothalamic
                           nuclei, which play a vital role in
                           psyche-sexual orientation. The cause of this
                           reduction in testosterone is the prolongation
                           of hyperprolactinemia during this critical
                           postnatal period, which is deemed to be
                           secondary to prolactin microadenomata
                           stimulated to secrete prolactin by high
                           estrogen levels at the end of pregnancy and
                           failing to turn off this secretion until after
                           this critical postnatal period. It is postulated
                           that there is a temporal dissociation between
                           the development of masculine behaviour
                           and psyche-sexual orientation, but that
                           hormonal influences may overlap these
                           periods. Hyperprolactinemia, caused by
                           stress upon the infant, may also influence
                           psycho-sexual orientation.
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                           MED HYPOTHESES

  Record 10 of 16
                           PATTATUCCI AML; HAMER DH
                           DEVELOPMENT AND FAMILIALITY OF
                           SEXUAL ORIENTATION IN FEMALES
                           BEHAVIOR GENETICS 1995, Vol 25, Iss
                           5, pp 407-420
                           The development and familial clustering of
                           sexual orientation were studied in 358
                           heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual
                           women. Sexual orientation, as measured by
                           the Kinsey scales, was diverse yet showed
                           statistical congruity and stability over a 1- to
                           1.5-year time span. Developmental patterns,
                           as measured by retrospective reports on the
                           ages of first sexual or romantic attraction
                           and of self-acknowledgment of sexual
                           orientation, were very similar in the
                           heterosexual and lesbian subjects except for
                           the difference in object choice. The bisexual
                           subjects displayed intermediate patterns that
                           were more similar to the heterosexuals' on
                           most facets yet closer to the lesbian
                           subjects' on other dimensions. Familial
                           clustering of nonheterosexual orientation
                           was significant. Using two criteria, elevated
                           rates of nonheterosexuality were found in
                           four classes of relatives: sisters, daughters,
                           nieces, and female cousins through a
                           paternal uncle. The current data are not
                           sufficient to distinguish between genetic and
                           shared environmental sources of this
                           familial aggregation. We discuss the
                           possibility of using developmental criteria to
                           differentiate between inherited and cultural
                           sources of variation in female sexual
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                           BEHAV GENET

  Record 11 of 16
                           SWAAB DF; HOFMAN MA
                           SEXUAL-DIFFERENTIATION OF THE
                           HUMAN HYPOTHALAMUS IN
                           RELATION TO GENDER AND SEXUAL
                           TRENDS IN NEUROSCIENCES 1995,
                           Vol 18, Iss 6, pp 264-270
                           Recently, sex differences in the structures
                           of the human hypothalamus and adjacent
                           brain structures have been observed that
                           seem to be related to gender, to gender
                           problems such as transsexuality, and to
                           sexual orientation, that is, heterosexuality
                           and homosexuality. Although these
                           observations have yet to be confirmed, and
                           their exact functional implications are far
                           from clear, they open up a whole new field
                           of physiological structural-functional
                           relationships in human brain research that
                           has so far focused mainly on such
                           relationships in pathology.
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                           TRENDS NEUROSCI

  Record 12 of 16
                           MACINTYRE F; ESTEP KW
                           SPERM COMPETITION AND THE
                           PERSISTENCE OF GENES FOR MALE
                           BIOSYSTEMS 1993, Vol 31, Iss 2-3, pp
                           Homosexuality is increasingly recognized
                           as having a genetic, component. Why then
                           does it persist, when common sense
                           suggests that it should result in fewer
                           offspring? Monozygotic-twin studies permit
                           a rough estimate of the importance of
                           genetics (70%) in the development of male
                           homosexuality, and the proportion of
                           homosexuals remains constant: Fisher's
                           Theorem then tells us there is an advantage
                           to the heterozygote, which we find need be
                           no greater than 2%. Behavior and sperm
                           competition suggest what this advantage
                           might be.
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  Record 13 of 16
                           BAILEY JM; BELL AP
                           FAMILIALITY OF FEMALE AND MALE
                           BEHAVIOR GENETICS 1993, Vol 23, Iss
                           4, pp 313-322
                           We examined data from a large cohort of
                           homosexual and heterosexual females and
                           males concerning their siblings' sexual
                           orientations. As in previous studies, both
                           male and female homosexuality were
                           familial. Homosexual females had an excess
                           of homosexual brothers compared to
                           heteroxual subjects, thus providing
                           evidence that similar familial factors
                           influence both male and female
                           homosexuality. Furthermore, despite the
                           large sample size, homosexual females and
                           males did not differ significantly from each
                           other in their proportions of either
                           homosexual sisters or homosexual brothers.
                           Thus, results were most consistent with the
                           possibility that similar familial factors
                           influence male and female sexual
                           orientation. However, because results
                           conflicted with those of some other studies,
                           and because siblings' sexual orientations
                           were obtained in a manner likely to yield
                           more errors than in these other, smaller
                           studies, further work is needed using large
                           samples and more careful methods before
                           the degree of cofamiliality of male and
                           female homosexuality can be resolved
                           definitively. We also examined whether
                           some parental influences comprised shared
                           environmental effects on sexual orientation.
                           Scales attempting to measure such
                           influences failed to distinguish subjects with
                           homosexual siblings from subjects with
                           only heterosexual siblings and, thus, did
                           not appear to measure shared environmental
                           determinants of sexual orientation.
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                           BEHAV GENET

  Record 14 of 16
                           BAILEY JM; BENISHAY DS
                           FAMILIAL AGGREGATION OF
                           FEMALE SEXUAL ORIENTATION
                           AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
                           PSYCHIATRY 1993, Vol 150, Iss 2, pp
                           Objective: The purpose of this study was to
                           determine whether female homosexuality is
                           familial and whether it is cofamilial with
                           male homosexuality. Method: Subjects
                           included 84 homosexual and 79
                           heterosexual female probands recruited
                           through newspaper advertisements.
                           Probands were asked about their siblings'
                           sexual orientations and were asked for
                           permission to contact siblings to confirm
                           their reports. Results: The authors were able
                           to contact 60% of eligible siblings, and the
                           information they provided about their sexual
                           orientations confirmed that probands'
                           reports were highly accurate. Homosexual
                           probands bad a significantly higher
                           proportion of homosexual sisters according
                           to four criteria for rating siblings' sexual
                           orientations. Homosexual probands also
                           had a higher proportion of homosexual
                           brothers; however, this difference was not
                           significant. Conclusions: Female
                           homosexuality appears to be familial.
                           Further research is required to resolve the
                           question of whether female and male
                           homosexuality are cofamilial.
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                           AMER J PSYCHIAT

  Record 15 of 16
                           DORNER G; POPPE I; STAHL F;
                           KOLZSCH J; UEBELHACK R
                           GENE-DEPENDENT AND
                           NEUROENDOCRINE ETIOGENESIS OF
                           HOMOSEXUALITY AND
                           EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL
                           ENDOCRINOLOGY 1991, Vol 98, Iss 2,
                           pp 141-150
                           Sexual brain organization is dependent on
                           sex hormone and neurotransmitter levels
                           occurring during critical developmental
                           periods. The higher the androgen levels
                           during brain organization, caused by genetic
                           and/or environmental factors, the higher is
                           the biological predisposition to bi- and
                           homosexuality or even transsexualism in
                           females and the lower it is in males. Adrenal
                           androgen excess, leading to heterotypical
                           sexual orientation and/or gender role
                           behavior in genetic females, can be caused
                           by 21-hydroxylase deficiency, especially
                           when associated with prenatal stress. The
                           cortisol (F) precursor 21-deoxycortisol
                           (21-DOF) was found to be significantly
                           increased after ACTH stimulation in
                           homosexual as compared to heterosexual
                           females. 21-DOF was increased
                           significantly before and even highly
                           significantly after ACTH stimulation in
                           female-to-male transsexuals. In view of
                           these data, heterozygous and homozygous
                           forms, respectively, of 21-hydroxylase
                           deficiency represent a genetic predisposition
                           to androgen-dependent development of
                           homosexuality and transsexualism in
                           females. Testicular androgen deficiency in
                           prenatal life, giving rise to heterotypical
                           sexual orientation and/or gender role
                           behavior in genetic males, may be induced
                           by prenatal stress and/or maternal or fetal
                           genetic alterations. Most recently, in
                           mothers of homosexual men - following
                           ACTH stimulation - a significantly
                           increased prevalence of high 21-DOF
                           plasma values and 21-DOF/F ratios was
                           found, which surpassed the mean + 1 SD
                           level of heterosexual control women. In
                           homosexual men as well - following ACTH
                           stimulation - most of the 21-DOF plasma
                           values and 21-DOF/F ratios also surpassed
                           the mean + 1 SD level of heterosexual men.
                           In only one out of 9 homosexual males,
                           neither in his blood nor in that of his mother
                           increased 21-DOF values and 21-DOF/F
                           ratios were found after ACTH stimulation.
                           In this homosexual man, however, the
                           plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
                           (DHEA-S) values and the DHEA-S/1000 x
                           A (A = androstenedione) ratio were
                           increased before and after ACTH
                           stimulation. Furthermore, highly
                           significantly increased basal plasma levels
                           of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were
                           found in male-to-female transsexuals as
                           compared to normal males, suggesting
                           partial 3-beta-ol hydroxysteroid
                           dehydrogenase deficiency to be a
                           predisposing factor for the development of
                           male-to-female transsexualism.
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                           EXP CLIN ENDOCRINOL

  Record 16 of 16
                           BAILEY JM; PILLARD RC
                           A GENETIC-STUDY OF MALE SEXUAL
                           ARCHIVES OF GENERAL
                           PSYCHIATRY 1991, Vol 48, Iss 12, pp
                           Homosexual male probands with
                           monozygotic cotwins, dizygotic cotwins, or
                           adoptive brothers were recruited using
                           homophile publications. Sexual orientation
                           of relatives was assessed either by asking
                           relatives directly, or when this was
                           impossible, asking the probands. Of the
                           relatives whose sexual orientation could be
                           rated, 52% (29/56) of monozygotic
                           cotwins, 22% (12/54) of dizygotic cotwins,
                           and 11% (6/57) of adoptive brothers were
                           homosexual. Heritabilities were substantial
                           under a wide range of assumptions about
                           the population base rate of homosexuality
                           and ascertainment bias. However, the rate
                           of homosexuality among nontwin biological
                           siblings, as reported by probands, 9.2%
                           (13/142), was significantly lower than
                           would be predicted by a simple genetic
                           hypothesis and other published reports. A
                           proband's self-reported history of
                           childhood gender nonconformity did not
                           predict homosexuality in relatives in any of
                           the three subsamples. Thus, childhood
                           gender nonconformity does not appear to be
                           an indicator of genetic loading for
                           homosexuality. Cotwins from concordant
                           monozygotic pairs were very similar for
                           childhood gender nonconformity.
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                           ARCH GEN PSYCHIAT


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