fruits, vegetables and mortality

Doug Skrecky (
Sun, 31 May 1998 04:12:18 -0700 (PDT)

Singh RB. Niaz MA. Ghosh S. Singh R. Rastogi SS.
Medical Hospital and Research Center, Moradabad, India.
Effect on mortality and
reinfarction of adding fruits and vegetables to a prudent
diet in the Indian experiment of infarct survival (IEIS).
Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 12(3):255-61, 1993 Jun.
The effects of antioxidant-rich foods as adjuncts to a
prudent diet were compared for 12 weeks in a randomized, single-blind and
controlled trial in 204 (group A) and 202 (group B) patients with acute
myocardial infarction. There was a significant decrease in cardiac end points
in group A compared to group B (37 vs 58, p < 0.01) after 12 weeks. Within
intervention group A, those 108 patients with greater adherence to the
intervention program showed a greater reduction in cardiac end points (14 vs
58, p < 0.001), and a significant decrease in total
mortality (6 vs 28, p < 0.001), including cardiac
mortality (6 vs 25, p < 0.01) compared to group B.
Underlying these beneficial effects, antioxidant-rich foods
caused a significantly smaller rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cardiac
enzyme in group A than in group B (427.8 vs 561.6 IU/dL), indicating that the
protective influence of such a diet may be observed within 1 week. The subset
of group A patients showing reduction in mortality also had
a lesser rise in LDH and greater reduction in blood lipids, blood glucose and
blood pressures. Antioxidant-rich foods also caused a significant decrease in
blood lipids with a lower decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in
group A than in group B. Assay of serum level of antioxidants and long-term
follow-up may confirm our observations.

Additional information from tables 2 & 3:

Total fruit and vegetable intake ( versus total mortality:

High Adherence Low Adherence Controls
Fruit & vegetables 652 grams/day 492 182
Mortality: 5.5% 10.4% 13.8%

Possibly helpful additional note from poster:

Typical weight of lycopene rich seedless watermelon is 5000 grams.