LIFE EXTENSION UPDATE MARCH 9 2001
IN THIS ISSUE, MARCH 9, 2001:
LIFE EXTENSION UPDATE EXCLUSIVE: Gene involved in aging in both yeast and
WHAT'S HOT: Calorie restriction does not effect bone mineral metabolism or
hormones in female primates;
FEATURED PRODUCTS OF THE WEEK: Bone Assure,Chronoforte;
MARCH LIFE EXTENSION MAGAZINE NOW ONLINE;
ICONTACT RETURNS TO WWW.LEF.ORG
LIFE EXTENSION UPDATE EXCLUSIVE
Gene involved in aging in both yeast and worms
In an article published in the March 8 issue of the journal Nature, MIT
researchers discovered that the SIR-2 gene, previously discovered to be
involved in the control of lifespan in yeast, is also involved in the
aging process of the nematode worm C elegans. The control of the gene over
lifespan evidently reduces the activity of a signaling pathway
corresponding to insulin or insulin-like growth factor in mammals. This
sheds light on a possible mechanism of calorie restriction in lifespan
Gerontologist George Martin has differentiated between "private" aging
mechanisms, unique to a species, and "public" ones common to all species.
Calorie, or energy restriction, involves the intake of a lower amount of
calories without malnutrtion, and is the only proven method of lifespan
extension in every species in which it has been tested, therefore
categorized as a public method. Gerontologists studying the yeast S
cerevisiae had previously discovered that the gene SIR-2 effects aging
through its control of gene silencing by altering the chromatin: the DNA,
RNA and protein that makes up the chromosomes. SIR-2 silences genes at
various DNA sites, and in a mechanism specific to S cerevisiae, reduces
extrachromosomal circles of ribosomal DNA that reduce yeast cell lifespan.
However, the method by which calorie restriction extends lifespan in yeast
involves a different mechanism of SIR-2, one that may be present in other
species. Worms bred with an extra copy of sir-2.1, the gene closest to
SIR-2 in yeast, live 50% longer than worms with the normal single copy.
The MIT researchers found that sir-2.1 antagonizes the insulin/IGF-1
pathway. This pathway, which is likely activated in the presence of food,
inhibits the gene daf-16, which is responsible for encoding a
transcription factor. When genes in this pathway are mutated, lifespan is
extended. Sir-2.1 appears to mutate genes in this pathway. Conversely,
when daf-16 is mutated, the lifespan extension created in worms with the
extra copy of sir-2.1 is blocked.
This experiment sheds light on one possible "public" aging mechanism and
provides a possible explanation of calorie restriction's mechanism of
action in delaying aging.
Calorie restriction does not effect bone mineral metabolism or hormones in
Calorie, or energy restriction is a remarkable method of delaying aging
and death through a reduction in caloric intake which has shown success
across species in extending maximum lifespan and preventing many diseases
associated with aging. In exploring energy restriction's effects in male
rhesus monkeys, it had previously been found to delay sexual and skeletal
maturity and lower bone mass, despite the numerous benefits it confers.
Similar effects have been seen in rats. In a study published in the March
2001 issue of the Journal of Nutrition, researchers from the National
Institute of Aging attempted to determine if energy restriction has
similar effects on female rhesus monkeys. Female rhesus monkeys undergo
menopause and changes in reproductive hormones similar to that of human
Forty female rhesus monkeys ranging in age from one to twenty-one were fed
either a standard diet or a diet consisting of 30% less calories than the
control diet for six years prior to data collection. The restricted diet
was formulated to exceed the National Research Council's standards for
vitamin and mineral status by 30-40% to compensate for the loss of
vitamins created by lower food intake. No monkeys were postmenopausal at
the time of the collection of the data.
While body fat was lowered in the monkeys receiving the restricted
diet,lean body mass was not. Although bone mineral density tended to be
lower with age in the restricted group, bone mass controlled for age and
weight measured at several sites was not effected by energy restriction,
and correlated with lean body mass, a correlation that has been observed
in human females. Concentrations of the reproductive hormones estradiol,
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone and luteinizing hormone
were not affected by calorie restriction, nor was menstrual cycling,
although estradiol and FSH declined with age and menstrual cycling began
to become less frequent in older animals. Parathyroid hormone and vitamin
D levels were also unaffected. The researchers speculated that females may
have a different response to calorie restriction than males. Ongoing
longitudinal studies at the NIA will further elucidate this area.
The primary cause of osteoporosis is hormonal imbalances that interfere
with the bone-forming cells. The osteoblasts are specialized bone cells
that function to pull calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus from the blood in
order to build bone mass. Osteoblasts require the hormone progesterone to
maintain youthful bone-forming capability during and after menopause.
For bone mineral maintenance and replacement, the Life Extension
Foundation recommends that women take between 1000 and 2000 mg of
elemental calcium along with 600 to 1000 mg of elemental magnesium every
day. The addition of between 400 and 1000 IU of vitamin D3 is mandatory to
ensure optimal calcium absorption. The inability to absorb calcium is a
major reason that calcium therapy fails to prevent or slow the progression
of osteoporosis. Vitamin D3 taken with calcium will normally promote
absorption and assimilation of calcium into the bone matrix. Vitamin D3
has also been shown to promote the production of IGF-1 and other growth
factors in osteoporotic patients, which improves osteoblast
(bone-building) function. Other minerals that are important for healthy
bone metabolism include at least 30 mg a day of elemental zinc, 3 mg a day
of elemental manganese, and 2 mg of elemental boron a day.
FEATURED PRODUCTS OF THE WEEK
Bone Assure is a comprehensive formula that can prevent osteoporosis in
five different ways:
Protects bone mineral mass by providing potent amounts of elemental
magnesium and a highly absorbable form of calcium (bis-glycinate) that has
been shown to assimilate 1.8 times better than calcium citrate.
Maintains the organic bone matrix with the minerals zinc, manganese,
silica and copper that are required for the formation of collagen and
other living connective tissues. Manganese has been shown to specifically
act as an anabolic catalyst in the development and maintenance of the
organic bone matrix.
Facilitates the absorption of calcium into the bloodstream by providing
vitamin D3. Once in the bloodstream vitamin D3 then acts as a hormone to
direct calcium into the bone matrix.
Prevents excessive urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium by providing
the trace mineral boron.
Bone assure lowers toxic homocysteine levels that have been shown to
damage the organic bone matrix by providing small amounts of folic acid,
B6 and TMG.
Getting older is a challenge, but it is the diseases of aging that people
fear most. Modern medicine has done little to prevent the underlying
disorders that accelerate the aging process and bring about the
vulnerability, pain and suffering that we connect with growing old.
Based on the accumulating body of research showing specific mechanisms by
which the diseases of aging can be prevented, The Life Extension Buyers
Club has formulated a product called ChronoForte that provides the
following in six capsules daily:
Acetyl-L-carnitine HCL 2000 mg
Alpha Lipoic acid 300 mg
Carnosine 1000 mg
Nettle leaf extract 1000 mg
Zinc 15 mg
Selenium 100 mcg
Biotin 3000 mcg
A 180 capsule bottle of ChronoForte will last for 30 days based on the
recommended dose of three capsules, twice a day.
MARCH 2001 LIFE EXTENSION MAGAZINE NOW ONLINE
Avoiding prostate cancer
Vegetables without vitamins
Very berry- and grape too!
More bad news on estrogen drugs and heart health
Tagamet to treat herpes and shingles
SAMe works when other antidepressants fail
Profile: Thinking, lifestyle and attitude
Questions and answers
March 2001 abstracts
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Life Extension Foundation
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