Re: SAVE This Evidence

Ron Kean (
Thu, 28 Jan 1999 14:42:43 -0500

On Thu, 28 Jan 1999 13:32:26 -0500 Ian Goddard <> writes:

> Also, having read a fair amount of Code, context is
> usually indicted by references to other sections,
> a fact that can make reading some Code a nightmare!
> But no such references existed in 1520 (or 1520(a)),
> which, in context, suggests it was standing alone.

Context means more than just references. The full context of a law would include all other laws, history, intent, implementation, regulations, practice, court decisions, scholarly commentary and legislative debate, to name some.

> But I looked around for more meaning of "consent"
> in the U.S. Code and I found a section that seems
> to provide protection (I have no idea when this
> section was passed or if it's been repealed):
>Subtitle A - General Military Law
>S 980. Limitation on use of humans as experimental subjects
>Funds appropriated to the Department of Defense may not be
>used for research involving a human being as an experimental
>subject unless -
> (1) the informed consent of the subject is obtained in
> advance; or
> (2) in the case of research intended to be beneficial to
> the subject, the informed consent of the subject or a legal
> representative of the subject is obtained in advance.
>------------------------- END CODE QUOTE ------------------------
> But this clearly applies only to tests involving
> just "a human being," and continually defines the
> tested as singular. A "civilian population" is not
> "a human being." Also, the above applies only to
> funds appropriated to the DoD. But most important,
> it defines "informed consent" as possibly only
> informing "a legal representative of the subject,"
> which takes us right back to 1520, which only
> required that "civilian officials" be notified,
> which may be why 1520 never referenced 10(980).

I find it possible to interpret tests on multiple humans to include testing of a single human. But it would be better if the wording in the the law made that clearer.

Ron Kean

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