He Y. Root MM. Parker RS. Campbell TC. Institution
Division of Nutritional Scinces, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Title
Effects of carotenoid-rich
food extracts on the development of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver and on in vivo and in vitro antioxidant status. Source
Nutrition & Cancer. 27(3):238-44, 1997. Abstract
The effect of dietary carotenoid-rich extracts of carrots, tomatoes, and orange juice on rat liver gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive preneoplastic foci induced by aflatoxin B1 was investigated. Organic extracts were prepared from the foods, dissolved in tricaprylin oil to equivalent concentrations of the major food-specific carotenoids, and fed by intubation to Fischer 344 male rats. The extracts were administered during the 2-week aflatoxin-dosing (initiation) period of the study or during the subsequent 12-week post-dosing (promotion) period. Vitamin status and antioxidant activities were measured in blood and liver. Extract feeding caused an accumulation of carotenoids in the liver, a substantial decrease in spontaneous erythrocyte hemolysis, and lowered plasma glutathione, blood superoxide dismutase, and blood catalase. Differences in foci development among the three extracts were not as consistent or profound as differences between initiation and promotion dosing. The number of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive foci was decreased by extract feeding during the initiation period, whereas extract feeding during the promotion period caused a decrease in the average diameter of the foci. The total volume of foci was markedly reduced by extract feeding during either period. Extracts were compared with purified carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol in their ability to affect in vitro antioxidation activity and were nearly as effective as the pure compounds. In summary, carotenoid-rich extracts of these three foods substantially inhibited biochemical and cellular events thought to play a role in the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis.