calcium decreases human mortality
Doug Skrecky (email@example.com)
Sat, 21 Aug 1999 09:12:28 -0700 (PDT)
Bostick RM. Kushi LH. Wu Y. Meyer KA. Sellers TA. Folsom AR.
Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University
of South Carolina, Columbia, USA.
Relation of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy food
intake to ischemic heart disease mortality
among postmenopausal women.
American Journal of Epidemiology. 149(2):151-61, 1999 Jan 15.
To investigate whether greater intakes of calcium, vitamin
D, or milk products may protect against ischemic heart disease
mortality, the authors analyzed data from a prospective
cohort study of 34,486 postmenopausal Iowa women 55-69 years old and without
a history of ischemic heart disease who completed a dietary questionnaire in
- Through 1994, 387 deaths due to ischemic heart disease were documented
(International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes 410-414,
429.2). The multivariate-adjusted relative risks for the highest versus the
lowest quartiles of total calcium, vitamin D, and milk product
intakes were as follows: 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI)
0.47-0.94; p for trend = 0.09) for calcium, 1.41 (95% CI 0.93-2.15; p for
trend = 0.12) for vitamin D, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.66-1.35; p for trend = 0.68)
for milk products. The relative risk was 0.63 (95% CI 0.40-0.98) for high
dietary calcium but no supplemental calcium intake and 0.66
(95% CI 0.36-1.23) for high supplemental calcium but low dietary calcium
intake. These results suggest that a higher
intake of calcium, but not of vitamin D or milk products, is
associated with reduced ischemic heart disease mortality in
postmenopausal women, and reduced risk may be achievable whether the higher
intake of calcium is attained by diet, supplements, or both.