Journal of Nutrition 128: 541-547 1998
"Specific Patterns of Food Consumption and Preparation are Associated With Diabetes and Obesity in a Native Canadian Community"
We examined the relationship between usual patterns of food intake, fattiness of food preparation and consumption, and diabetes and obesity status in a Native Canadian reserve in northwestern Ontario. Patterns of intake were estimated using a 34-item food frequency instrument. Scales and scores were developed using factor analysis procedures and were tested for reliability using coefficient alpha. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes status was determined by administering a 75-g glucose tolerance test. A number of the food groups appear to have a protective effect in regard to IGT and diabetes, including vegetables [odds ratio OR=0.41], breakfast foods (OR=0.41) and hot meal foods (OR=0.29). Most of these foods are relatively high in fiber and low in fat. High consumption of junk foods and the bread and butter group was associated with substantial increases in risk for diabetes (OR=2.40; OR=2.22). These foods tend to be high in simple sugars, low in fiber and high in fat. More fatty methods of food preparation are also associated with increased risk for diabetes in this population (OR=2.58). This information has been incorporated into an ongoing commmunity-based diabetes program in the community.
Additional quote from text:
Of the different types of fat reportedly used in preparation and added for consumption, only lard showed a significant relationship with individual health status. The most frequent users of lard were over twice as likely to have diabetes or to belong to the combined diabetes/IGT group.