Ballard TC. Farag A. Branum GD. Akwari OE. Opara EC. Institution
Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.
Effect of L-glutamine supplementation on impaired glucose regulation during intravenous lipid administration [see comments].
Comment in: Nutrition 1996 May;12(5):375 Source
Nutrition. 12(5):349-54, 1996 May.
In contrast to L-glutamine, lipid emulsions are routinely administered to patients receiving nutritional support. The provision of fat during intravenous feeding is essential, but the potentially toxic byproducts of fatty acid oxidation may have adverse metabolic consequences. In the present study, we have examined the effect of L-glutamine, an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation, on the development of defective blood glucose regulation caused by a 48-hour infusion of 10% intralipid in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-290 g) were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, the right femoral vein cannulated, and baseline blood samples were taken. Each rat was placed in a metabolic cage with access to water, in the presence or absence of rodent chow. Two hours after waking, the rats were infused with 10% intralipid with either saline (control), 2% L-glutamine, or 2% L-alanine. After 48 hours, all animals were sacrificed and blood samples were again obtained. The mean +/- SEM plasma glucose levels before and after lipid infusion at the rate of 1 mL/hr in control rats fed ad libitum, were 125 +/- 13 and 170 +/- 5 mg/dL (p < 0.01, n = 7). Similarly, plasma free fatty acids (FFA) in these animals rose from 0.74 +/- 0.11 to 1.34 +/- 0.32 mmol/L (p < 0.05). Plasma insulin levels also increased from 337 +/- 44 to 1278 +/- 88 pg/mL (p < 0.01). Reduction of intralipid dose infusion did not prevent insulin resistance characterized by hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. However, addition of L-glutamine to the high-dose lipid infusion with chow feeding prevented changes in plasma glucose, insulin levels, and FFA but not triglyceride levels. Also, glutamine but not alanine supplementation in intralipid infused rats without chow feeding prevented changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and malondialdehyde levels. In conclusion, these data show that glutamine supplementation during intravenous lipid administration in rats prevents the development of impaired glucose regulation associated with hyperlipidemia.
Opara EC. Petro A. Tevrizian A. Feinglos MN. Surwit RS. Institution
Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Title
L-glutamine supplementation of a high fat diet reduces body weight and attenuates hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in C57BL/6J mice.
Journal of Nutrition. 126(1):273-9, 1996 Jan. Abstract
C57BL/6J (B/6J) mice are genetically predisposed to become overweight and develop hyperglycemia if raised on a high fat diet. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of dietary supplementation of L-glutamine (Gln), an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation, on the development of hyperglycemia and excessive weight gain. Groups of 10 age- and weight-matched male B/6J mice were raised on one of four diets: 1) a low fat, low sucrose (LL), studied separately, 2) a high fat, low sucrose (HL) diet alone, 3) high fat, low sucrose supplemented with L-glutamine (HL+Gln) and 4) high fat, low sucrose supplemented with L-alanine (HL+Ala). Energy intake, body weight, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were monitored over time. We found no difference in energy intake per unit body weight between any groups after the first 2 wk of feeding. However, the mean +/- SEM for body weight (27.1 +/- 0.6 g) of the LL group measured at 16 wk was lower (P < 0.05) than that of the HL group at 37.9 +/- 1.9 g. Also, after 5.5 mo, the mean +/- SEM for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in the LL group of mice were 6.9 +/- 0.4 mmol/l and 146 +/- 30 pmol/l, which were lower (P < 0.05) than those in the HL group at 10.1 +/- 0.9 mmol/l and 438 +/- 84 pmol/l, respectively. Although both amino acids caused a 10% reduction (P < 0.05) in body weight compared with HL feeding at wk 16, only Gln supplementation resulted in persistent reductions in both plasma glucose and insulin concentrations over 5.5 mo. In another experiment, when Gln was added to the high fat (HL) diet of heavy hyperglycemic animals for 2 mo, body weight gain, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were attenuated. In conclusion, supplementing glutamine to a high fat diet reduces body weight and attenuated hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in B/6J mice.