Technotranscendence (
Wed, 28 Jan 1998 07:36:20 -0500 (EST)

At 07:54 PM 1/27/98 +0100, Anders Sandberg <> wrote:
>Hmm, I got interested and did a small medline search. While most of
>the stuff tends to support your claims, I also found the article
>abstracted below, which suggests that BHT may not be as great as
>Pearson & Shaw claim due to carcinogenic properties.

I wish Pearson and Shaw would write a second edition of the _Life
Extension_ book, updating it with all the research that has gone on
in the last few years.

>Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 1993 Apr;196(4):329-338
>[Toxicology of the synthetic antioxidants BHA and BHT in
>comparison with the natural antioxidant vitamin E].
>Kahl R, Kappus H
>Abteilung fur Pharmakologie, Universitat Hamburg, Deutschland.
>The toxicology of the food preservatives butylhydroxyanisole (BHA) and
>butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) as well as the naturally occurring vitamin E
>(alpha-tocopherol) is described. In high dosages all three compounds
>induce in animals impairment of blood clotting, which can be explained
>by an antagonism with vitamin K. Specific toxic effects to the lung
>have only been observed with BHT. The other described toxic effects of
>BHA and BHT are less characteristic and often occur only after high
>dosage and long-term treatment. However, BHA induces in animals
>tumours of the forestomach, which are dose dependent, whereas BHT
>induces liver tumours in long-term experiments. Because there is no
>indication of genotoxicity of BHA and BHT, all published findings
>agree with the fact that BHA and BHT are tumour promoters. In contrast
>to BHA and BHT, vitamin E is not carcinogenic. On the other hand, all
>three antioxidants have also anticarcinogenic properties. The intake
>of the necessary high doses as for these effects are, however,
>contraindicated with BHA and BHT because of their carcinogenic
>effects. The present overview concludes that the concentrations of BHA
>and BHT nowadays used in food, drugs and cosmetics are probably
>harmless. In addition, vitamin E can also be used in higher doses
>without the occurrence of adverse effects.

What is a high dose and what is long term?

I hate when reports don't specify amounts or ranges. This is the
same with "moderate drinking." What exactly is "moderate"?

Daniel Ust