Law: United Nations: Universal Declaration Of Human Rights (for ones that care to know laws they

Mike C. (
Sat, 22 Mar 1997 12:03:47 -0500

>To: ,
>From: (Mike C.)
>Subject: Law: United Nations: Universal Declaration Of Human Rights (for
ones that care to know laws they are SUPPOSED to obey)
> On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations
>adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
>the full text of which appears in the following pages.
>Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member countries
>to publicize the text of the Declaration
>and "to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded
>principally in schools and other educational institutions,
>without distinction
>based on the political status of countries or territories."
>Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity
>and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family
>is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
>Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights
>have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of
mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings
>shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want
>has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the commonpeople,
>Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse,
>as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression,
>that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
>Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations
>between nations,
>Whereas the peoples of the United Nations
>have in the Charter reaffirmed theirfaith in fundamental human rights,
>in the dignity and worth of the human person
>and in the equal rights of men and women
>and have determined to promotesocial progress and better standards of life
>in larger freedom,
>Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve,
>in co-operation withthe United Nations, the promotion of universal respect
>for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
>Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms
>is of the greatestimportance for the full realization of this pledge,
>Now, Therefore,
>as a common standard of achievementfor all peoples and all nations,
>to the end that every individual and every organ of society,
>keeping this Declaration constantly in mind,
>shall strive byteaching and education to promote respect
>for these rights and freedoms and byprogressive measures,
>national and international,
>to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance,
>both among the peoples of Member States themselves
>and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
>Article 1.
>All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
>They are endowed with reason and conscience
>and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
>Article 2.
>Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms
>set forth in this Declaration,
>without distinction of any kind,
>such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion,
national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
>Furthermore, no distinction shall be made
>on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status
>of the country or territory to which a person belongs,
>whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing
>or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
>Article 3.
>Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
>Article 4.
>No one shall be held in slavery or servitude;
>slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
>Article 5.
>No one shall be subjected to torture
>or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
>Article 6.
>Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
>Article 7.
>All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination
>to equal protection of the law.
>All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination
>in violation of this Declaration
>and against any incitement to such discrimination.
>Article 8.
>Everyone has the right to an effective remedy
>by the competent national tribunals
>for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him
>by the constitution or by law.
>Article 9.
>No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
>Article 10.
>Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing
>by an independent and impartial tribunal,
>in the determination of his rights and obligations
>and of any criminal charge against him.
>Article 11.
>(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed
innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial
>at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
>(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence
>on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence,
under national or international law, at the time when it was committed
>Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable
>at the time the penal offence was committed.
>Article 12.
>No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference
>with his privacy, family, home or correspondence,
>nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation
>Everyone has the right to the protection of the law
>against such interference or attacks.
>Article 13.
>(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence
>within the borders of each state.
>(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own,
>and to return to his country.
>Article 14.
>(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries
>asylum from persecution.
>(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions
>genuinely arising from non-political crimes
>or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
>Article 15.
>(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
>(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality
>nor denied the right to change his nationality.
>Article 16.
>(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation
>due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry
>and to found a family.
>They are entitled to equal rights
>as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
>(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent
>of the intending spouses.
>(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society
>and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
>Article 17.
>(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone
>as well as in association with others.
>(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
>Article 18.
>Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion;
>this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom,
either alone or in community with others and in public or private,
>to manifest his religion or belief
>in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
>Article 19.
>Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression;
>this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference
>and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas
>through any media and regardless of frontiers.
>Article 20.
>(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
>(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
>Article 21.
>(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country,
directly or through freely chosen representatives.
>(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
>(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of
government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections
>which shall be by universal and equal suffrage
>and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.
>Article 22.
>Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security
>and is entitled to realization,
>through national effort and international co-operation
>and in accordance with the organization an resources of each State,
>of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity
>and the free development of his personality.
>Article 23.
>(1) Everyone has the right to work,
>to free choice of employment,
>to just and favourable conditions of work
>and to protection against unemployment.
>(2) Everyone, without any discrimination,
>has the right to equal pay for equal work.
>(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration
ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity,
>and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
>(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions
>for the protection of his interests.
>Article 24.
>Everyone has the right to rest and leisure,
>including reasonable limitation of working hours
>and periodic holidays with pay.
>Article 25.
>(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living
>adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family,
>including food, clothing, housing and medical care
>and necessary social services,
>and the right to security
>in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age
>or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
>(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance.
>All children, whether born in or out of wedlock,
>shall enjoy the same social protection.
>Article 26.
>(1) Everyone has the right to education.
>Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages
Elementary education shall be compulsory Technical
>and professional education shall be made generally available
>and higher education shall be equally accessible
>to all on the basis of merit.
>(2) Education shall be directed to the full development
>of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human
rights and fundamental freedoms.
>It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship
>among all nations, racial or religious groups,
>and shall further the activities of the United Nations
>for the maintenance of peace.
>(3) Parents have a prior right to choose
>the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
>Article 27.
>(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate
>in the cultural life of the community,
>to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
>(2) Everyone has the right to the protection
>of the moral and material interests
>resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production
>of which he is the author.
>Article 28.
>Everyone is entitled to a social and international order
>in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration
>can be fully realized.
>Article 29.
>(1) Everyone has duties to the community
>in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
>(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms,
>everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law
solely for the purpose of securing due recognition
>and respect for the rights and freedoms of others
>and of meeting the just requirements
>of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
>(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised
>contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
>Article 30.
>Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying
>for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity
>or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights
>and freedoms set forth herein.
>How does it feel to know the law?
> U.Sov.